Combining prospective and retrospective motion correction based on a model for fast continuous motion
Prospective motion correction (PMC) and retrospective motion correction (RMC) have different advantages and limitations. The present work aims to combine the advantages of both for rigid body motion, aiming at correcting for faster motions than was previously achievable. Additionally, it provides insights into the effects of motion on pulse sequences and MR signals with a goal of further improving motion correction in the future.
The effective encoding trajectory and a global phase offset in a moving object are calculated based on complete gradient waveforms of an arbitrary sequence and a continuous motion model. These data are used to feed the forward signal model, which is then used in iterative image reconstruction to suppress the artifacts still present after the PMC.
Verification experiments with a rotation phantom and in vivo were performed. Predictions of simulated motion artifacts for PMC based on sequence waveforms are very accurate. The performance at combined PMC+RMC is limited by Nyquist violations in the sampled k-space and can be compensated by oversampling.
The combined correction results in better images than pure PMC in the presence of fast motion. The predictions of artifacts are very accurate, allowing for comparing sequences or protocols in simulations. The observed artifacts due to Nyquist violations are expected to be corrected by utilizing parallel imaging.